Hypercalcaemia is a condition in which the levels of calcium in the blood above normal. Calcium is needed for bone formation, and plays an important role in muscle contraction, ensuring that nerve and brain function remains good, and releasing hormones. However, this process can be influenced by calcium levels are too high.
Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia can not exist, or even with severe symptoms.Treatment of hypercalcemia was based on the cause.
Excessive work of one or more parathyroid glands that regulate calcium is the main cause of hypercalcaemia. An overactive parathyroid gland usually causes post-menopausal women experiencing hypercalcaemia. Excessive use of calcium supplements and vitamin D, certain medical disorders, cancer and some medications can also cause hypercalcemia.
Calcium is primarily stored in bones but there is also stored in certain cells, especially in the blood and muscles. Milk, cheese and green leafy vegetables contain calcium and the body normally maintain normal levels of calcium in the blood by removing calcium in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia can not exist, or even with severe symptoms.
Some severe symptoms of hypercalcemia include:
1. Excessive thirst
2. Abdominal pain
3. Lethargy and fatigue
4. Frequent urination
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Muscle weakness
7. Loss of appetite
8. Sore muscles and joints
The severity of signs and symptoms usually do not have anything to do with the excess calcium in the blood of a person. For example, generalized muscle pain and weakness in the elderly.
In the case of a person experiencing signs and symptoms that might indicate hypercalcemia such as frequent urination, abdominal pain and excessive thirst, should contact a physician.
To reduce the calcium to a safe level and protect the kidneys and bone, these patients may need to be treated in hospital if suffering from severe hypercalcaemia.
In this case, treatment for hypercalcemia may include:
1. Intravenous bisphosphonates
These medications are used to inhibit bone breakdown. An example is the group of drugs that includes zolendronate and pamidronate.
2. Intravenous fluids
Will be given intravenous fluids for rehydration of patients.
3. Loop diuretic medications
These medications are used to help remove excess calcium from the patient’s metabolic system and maintain renal function. One example is furosemide.
4. Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids)
Corticosteroids are used to help counter the effects of too much vitamin D in the blood caused by hypercalcaemia.
This hormone can decrease bone reabsorption and slow down bone loss, produced by the thyroid gland.
In the case of patients with renal impairment and did not respond to other treatments, hemodialysis will be used to dispose of waste and excess calcium from the blood.
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