Cultivation of grapes has been known in the Middle East since 4000 BC. Only in the year 2500 BC, Egyptians developed the processing technology of wine. Now wine has spread worldwide and is a valuable economic commodity. Approximately 75,866 square kilometer area planted grape in the world.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2009), the ten largest wine producing country in the world are: Italy, PRC, USA, France, Spain, Turkey, Iran, Argentina, Chile and India.
As for the wine center of Indonesia are in Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Situbondo, (East Java), Bali and Kupang (NTT).
In Indonesia, the wine is known began in 1682. Then in 1828 began cultivating grapes in Banyuwangi and Besuki. In 1899 began to be known Probolinggo blue and white wines, which then in 2002 developed into a grape varieties and Probolinggo Super King Bestari.
King Bestari red wine varieties can be planted up to a height of 300 meters above sea level and produces 10-30 kg of fruit / tree. Another plus contain resveratrol (1.5 to 3 mg / liter), sugar (20 brix), acid (1.9%), vitamin C (23.23 mg/100 g), levels of juice (47.77%).
Grapes (Vitis vinifera) can be eaten raw or made vinegar, supplements / extracts, jelly, juice, raisins, oil, jam, wine (the fermented juice of a kind drinks wine), also used as raw materials in the Confectionery (company / store sugar maker -sugars).
According to the USDA nutrient database, each 100 grams (3.5 oz) green grapes or purple grapes contain carbohydrate (18.1 grams), sugar (15.48 grams), dietary fiber (0.9 grams), fat (0.16 grams), protein (0.72 grams), vitamin B1 (0.069 mg), B2 (0.07 mg), B3 (0.188 mg), B5 (0.05 mg), B6 ??(0.086 mg), B9 (2 ug ), C (10.8 mg), E (0.19 mg), K (22 mg), phosphorus (20 mg), potassium (191 mg), calcium (10 mg), magnesium (7 mg), manganese ( 0.071 mg), sodium (3.02 mg), zinc (0.07 mg), iron (0.36 mg), stilbene derivatives, trans-Resveratrol (trans-3 ,5,40-trihydroxystilbene).
Grape seeds contain flavonoids (4-5%), including kaempferol-3-O-glucosides, quercetin-3-Oglucosides, quercetin, and myricetin. Flavonoids are phytochemicals donor compounds in purple grape.
Wine is also rich in polyphenols. Approximately 60-70% of polyphenols found in grape seeds. Grape seed polyphenols are derivatives (derivatives) flavan-3-ol. Its main component is the (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin ,(-)- epicatechin-3-O-gallate, procyanidins dimers (B1-B5), procyanidin C1 and procyanidin B5-3′-gallate. Including procyanidins or proanthocyanidins that most of the hexamer.
Wine is also rich in anthocyanins, 3-glucosides, 3-acetylglucosides, 3-coumaroylglucosides, 3-caffeoylglucosides, 3.5-diglucosides, 3-acetyl-5-diglucosides, 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucosides, and 3-caffeoyl-5 -diglucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and mal-vidin.
Wine has antidiabetic effects. GSPE (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract) is reportedly effective in treating diabetic nephropathy. GPSE (250 mg / kg body weight / day) also repair heart damage associated with glycation in experimental animals.
In addition, grape seed extract also has a beneficial effect antihiperglikemik thus preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experiments conducted N.?endo?du, et al (2006) proved that the ethanol extract of grape leaves at doses of 250 mg / kg has antidiabetic and antioxidant activity is high.
In general, the optimum dose recommended grape seed extract is 150-200 mg / day, 2-3x a drink, or the advice of a doctor / herbalist.
Grape seed extract has antioxidant activity and an antidote to free radicals. Procyanidin inhibits xanthine oxidase activity; enzyme triggers oxy-radical cascade. In addition, procyanidin B4, catechin, and gallic acid is reported as an agent preventing oxidative DNA damage at the cellular level.
Flavonoids in wine serves as a potent antioxidant that works as a cancer preventative, can inhibit the oxidation of LDL in the coronary vessel wall, has antimicrobial effects, improve endothelial function, inhibit atherosclerosis (fatty deposits in blood vessels).
Quercetin is a phytochemical that include flavonoids, have antioxidant activity, inhibiting protein kinases and DNA topoisomerases, regulate gene expression, also modulate the expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.
Quercetin is able to change the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptotic proteins so as to effectively prevent prostate cancer, mutation of the p53 protein and inhibits the G2-M phase so as to effectively prevent breast cancer, inhibits cell differentiation so that either prevent malignancy of colorectal (colon and rectum), also play a role in the phaseG2 / M, so the potential to treat leukemia. Further research is needed on these findings.
Polyphenols also an antioxidant. In grapes known as resveratrol, inhibits enzymes that function to stimulate the growth of cancer cells and suppresses the immune system.
Actually, resveratrol has been known for centuries in Asian medicine as Ko-jo-con, in the form of flour / powdered root of Polygonum cuspidatum, as anti-inflammatory drugs.Interestingly, resveratrol in grape skin serves as a powerful antioxidant, protective effect against ischemia reperfusion events (lack of blood supply), especially in skeletal muscle (order) mice.
Resveratrol can suppress NF-kB activation and to downregulate various gene products triggers inflammation, such as COX-2, 5-LOX, IL-1b, and IL-6, all of which play an important role in the occurrence of arthritis (arthritis). This indicates the role of prevention as well as arthritis therapies.
Resveratrol also has an effect so as to prevent antiproliferasi histiositik lymphoma and cancers of the colon (large intestine), alters gene expression in the androgen axis and cell cycle regulation so as to effectively prevent prostate cancer.
The components on the antimicrobial effect of wine, such as gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and tannin.
Other compounds also multikhasiat. Saponin (15 mg / day) can lower blood sugar levels, inhibit and prevent the absorption of cholesterol in the blood. Ellagic acid helps slow down the development of tumors.
Magnesium launched a bowel movement. Manganese helps stabilize blood sugar, play a role in the metabolism of fat, connective tissue and bone formation. Proanthocyanidine can prevent strokes, heart attacks, and fight the aging process.
Choose grapes that are still fused with the stem, the same size and uniform, intact, its surface smooth, not dry stalks. To be durable and long lasting, wine should be stored in the refrigerator. Wash with soap before eating a special fruit. Eat with the skin because it is rich in flavonoids.
In order to maintain stamina and health, as well as remove toxins in the body, drink grape juice or eat fresh grapes every day for a week in a row. Hemm … Apparently, in addition to delicious and healthy, too multikhasiat wine. Want to try?
dr. Dito Anurogo
Doctors and researchers hematopsikiatri medicopomology, work in hospitals JL Healthy Families. P. Sudirman 9 Margorejo Pati, Central Java. Author of the book ‘Ways to Overcome Impotence’, is currently conducting research on Biomarkers of Stroke with scientists at the University of Wisconsin, USA.
Researchers hematopsikiatri (the science that studies the relationship with the blood type personality, lifestyle and trends in disease patterns, prevention and solutions).Researchers Medicopomology (medicinal fruit).
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