Diagnosing mental disorders is not easy. Historically, the preparation of manuals and a handle for diagnosing mental disorders often sparked debate on what diseases would be included. This debate is not only happening among scientists, but also the ordinary people.
The book called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a reference book that all psychologists in the world. Constituent is the psychological experts who are members of the American Psychological Association (APA).
Some who had become mentally Disorders Controversial as reported by livescience.com, among others;
1. Gender Identity Disorders
Currently, the most controversial of all mental disorder is a disorder of gender identity.Based on previous editions of DSM, people who feel their physical gender does not correspond to a true gender can be diagnosed with gender identity disorder.
The biggest controversy of this disorder is that the DSM does not include treatment. Are children who are not allowed to define their gender matched their own, or should be encouraged to identify themselves according to their physical sex?
“On the one hand, experts believe that these children feel comfortable with the body which has its own. But on the other hand, experts are suggesting children are free to determine her wishes. I think that forcing someone to live with unwanted sex will lead to depression and anxiety, “said Diane Ehrensaft, a clinical psychologist in Oakland, California.
2. Sex addiction
According to the institution of the Society for the Advancement of Sexual Health, sexual addiction is marked by a lack of control over sexual behavior.
Sex addicts will obey his sexual desire is bad though, can not set boundaries and obsessed with sex even when it does not want to think about it. Some confessed sex addict does not get pleasure from their sexual behavior, but only produces shame.
These disorders have not been incorporated into the DSM, and probably will not be included in subsequent editions of DSM. Instead, Asiosiasi American Psychological (APA) intend to add a new sexual disorder called hypersexual disorder, which does not describe about sex addiction.
Historically, homosexuality was the most controversial psychiatric disorder. WHAT strike homosexuality from the list of mental disorders in 1973 after receiving protests from the onslaught of gay and lesbian activists.
Some scientific evidence suggests that same-sex attraction is a normal thing among people who can adapt to its environment.
4. Asperger’s Disorder
Asperger’s disorder is characterized by intelligence and normal language skills, but poor social skills. These included ganggguan DSM in 1994, but in 2013, this disorder is certainly already removed from the list.
The reason, studies have failed to distinguish between Asperger’s disorder and autism.44 percent of children diagnosed with Asperger’s really meet the criteria of autism, according to a survey in 2008.
5. Bipolar Disorders in Children
Bipolar disorder is characterized by mood swings between depression and sense of fun.In 1994 to 2003, the number of physician visits associated with bipolar disorder in children increased 40-fold, according to a 2007 study in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry.
The problem is, most of the increase was due to changes in the way psychologists diagnose bipolar disorder in children, not because of an increase in actual cases.
To overcome this, APA plans to add new disorders, namely anger dysregulation with dysphoria. This disturbance will apply to children who have irritable mood and often angry.But some experts had doubted it because of some behavioral disorders in children considered normal.
6. ADHD in Adults
ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children with ADHD have difficulty sitting still, paying attention, and impulse control. Recently, some psychiatrists began to diagnose ADHD in adults.
“Some of the symptoms of ADHD in children have been deemed excessive diagnosis, especially in adults. There are allegations that psychiatrists conspiring with pharmaceutical companies to sell more ADHD drugs,” says a psychiatrist from New York University, Norman Sussman.
7. Dissociation Identity Disorders
Once the disorder known as multiple personality disorder. Multiple personality disorder after a famous book called “Sybil” was made into a movie of the same name in 1976.
Film and the book tells the story of Shirley Mason, pseudonym Sybil, who was diagnosed with 16 different personalities as a result of physical and sexual abuse by her mother.
The book and the film is in demand, but the diagnosis is very rare. In 1995, a psychiatrist named Herbert Spiegel investigate cases of Sybil.
He asserted that he believed in the personality of different Sybil was created by a therapist because of the effects of therapy or hypnosis, and this may go unnoticed.
Critics argue that the disorder is actually engineered, created with the intention of convincing the patient that the problem is due to multiple personalities.
However, dissociative identity disorder made it through this criticism and will not experience major changes in the next edition of DSM.
A person who is highly praised and less need to empathize with other people included in the criteria for narcissistic, and they seem to really fit to undergo psychotherapy. However, this disorder also could reap narsisitik controversy.
The biggest problem is that no one who claims to have the disorder. According to the 2001 review in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, almost half of people diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder also meet criteria for other personality.
To overcome these problems, the APA proposes major changes in the next edition of DSM. The diagnosis will be more focus on the dysfunction and the nature of mental disorders. The goal is to menhilangkan overlap and create a more useful category for patients with personality disorders.
9. Penis Envy (Jealousy Penis)
Sigmund Freud revolutionized psychology in the late 1800s and early 1900s with his theories about psychosexual. One theory is concluded that the sexual development of young girls driven by jealousy because they do not pick the penis (penis envy) and sexual desires toward the father.
This conclusion is in cash reap a lot of controversy. However, over the times, this theory has been obsoleted by itself.
In the 1800s, hysteria include all diagnoses of mental disorders in women. The symptoms are not obvious such as dissatisfaction, weakness, and emotional outbursts.
Treatment is simple and known as ‘hysterical paroxysm’ or also known as orgasm. The doctor will massage the patient’s genitals manually or with a vibrator. Though awkward, this is not considered controversial at the time.
Even more controversial is asking female patients ‘hysteria’ to rest without work or socializing. These treatments often exacerbate anxiety or depression. According to the 2002 editorial in the journal Spinal Cord, case diagnosis of hysteria subsided gradually during the 20th century.
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